Saturday, 27 December 2014

Albrecht Dürer - part 1

1484 Self-Portrait at the age of 13 silverpoint on paper 27.5 x 19.6 cm Albertina, Vienna
Albrecht Dürer (1471-1528) was a German painter, engraver, printmaker, mathematician and theorist. Born in Nuremberg in 1471, Duurer was apprenticed to his father, a goldsmith, and to Michael Wolgemut, whose workshop produced woodcut illustrations for publications. Dürer revolutionised printmaking, elevating it to an independent art form. His high quality woodcuts established his reputation and influence across Europe when he was still in his twenties, and he is regarded as the greatest artist of the Northern Renaissance. His vast body of works include altarpieces and other religious works, numerous portraits and self-portraits, and copper engravings.

By the age of thirty Dürer had completed or begun three of his most famous series of woodcuts on religious subjects: The Large Passion cycle (c1497-1500), The Apocalypse (1497-98), The Life of the Virgin (1500-11).

Dürer visited Italy twice - from 1494 to 1495, and again from 1505 to 1507, seeing first-hand some of the great works of the Italian Renaissance, as well as the classical heritage and theoretical writings of the region. The influence of Venetian colour and design can be seen in the 1506 altarpiece Feast of Rose Garlands, commissioned from Dürer by a German colony of merchants living in Venice.

1506 Feast of the Rose Garlands oil on polar panel 162 x 194.5 cm Národní Galerie, Prague

Dürer developed an interest in the human form, demonstrated by his antique and nude studies. He wrote Four Books of Human Proportion, only the first of which was published in his lifetime. His talent, ambition and wide-ranging intellect earned him the attention and friendship of some of the most prominent figures in German society. He became official court artist to Holy Roman Emperors Maximilian I and his successor Charles V, for whom he designed and helped execute a range of artistic projects.

1519 Emperor Maximilian I tempera on canvas 83 x 65 cm Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna

1521 Medal of Charles V designed by Albrecht Dürer, silver
Dürer exerted a huge influence on the artists of succeeding generations, especially in printmaking, the medium through which his contemporaries mostly experienced his art, as his paintings were predominately held in private collections. His success in spreading his reputation across Europe through his prints was undoubtedly an inspiration for major artists such as Raphael, Titian, and Parmigianino, all of whom collaborated with printmakers to promote and distribute their work. Dürer died in 1528.

This is part 1 of a 9-part post on the works of Albrecht Dürer:

1485-1528 Knight on Horseback and Landsknecht pen and brown ink, touches of brush and brown wash 30 x 28 cm Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

1486c Albrech Dürer the Elder silverpoint 28 x 21 cm Albertina, Vienna

1489-90 Alpine Road watercolour and gouache on parchment Albertina, Vienna

1489c St John's Church watercolour and gouache on paper 29 x 42 cm The Hermitage, St. Petersburg

1489c The Wire-drawing Mill watercolour and gouache on paper 28.6 x 42.6 cm Staatliche Museen, Berlin

1490 Alliance Coat of Arms of the Dürer and Holper Families oil on panel 47 x 39 cm Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence

1490 Portrait of Barbara Dürer oil on pine panel 47 x 38 cm Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg

1490 Portrait of Dürer's Father oil on panel 48 x 40 cm Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence

1490 St. Ambrose woodcut 18.4 x 13.8 cm Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

1490-1528 St. Catherine of Alexandria pen and brown ink 16.5 x 7.5 cm Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

1493 Female Nude pen and ink on paper 27.2 x 14.7 cm Musée Bonnat, Bayonne

1493 Illustration from the Ritter von Turn woodcut Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

1493 Illustration from the Ritter von Turn woodcut Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

1493c Christ as the Man of Sorrows oil on panel 23 x 17 cm Staatliche Kunsthalle, Karlsruhe

1494 Bacchanal with Silenus (after Mantegna *see below) pen and brown ink 29.8 x 43.3 cm Albertina, Vienna

before 1481 Bacchanal with Silenus by Andrea Mantegna burin and drypoint 27.9 x 41.7 cm

1494 Battle of the Sea-Gods (after Mantegna *see below) pen and ink 28.9 x 38.1 cm Graphische Sammlung Albertina, Vienna

1493c Andrea Mantegna "Battle of the Sea-Gods" engraving 29.4 x 39.1 cm Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

1494 Courtyard of the Former Castle in Innsbruck without Clouds watercolour on paper 33.5 x 26.7 cm Graphische Sammlung Albertina, Vienna

1494 Death of Orpheus pen 28.p x 22.5 cm Kunsthalle, Hamburg

1494 Lion Kunsthalle, Hamburg

1494 Mein Agnes (Durer's wife Agnes Frey) pen in bistre on paper 15.6 x 9.8 cm Graphische Sammlung Albertina, Vienna

1494 View of Trento watercolour and gouache on paper 23.8 x 35.6 cm Kunsthalle, Bremen

1494-94 Studies of Dürer's Left Hand pen and ink 27 x 18 cm Albertina, Vienna

1494-95 Recumbent Lion brush and brown ink over feint black chalk with touches of pink watercolour and blue blck pigment on laid paper 12.5 x 17.7 cm Detroit Institute of Arts

1494-98 The Penance of St. John Chrysostom engraving Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

1494-98c The Monstrous Pig of Landser engraving Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

1494c Innsbruck seen fron the North watercolour on paper 13 x 19 cm Graphische Sammlung Albertina

1494c The Ravisher engraving 11.4 x 10.1 cm (sheet) Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

1495 Abduction of a Woman pen and ink 28.3 x 42.3 cm Musée Bonnat, Bayonne

1495 Crab watercolour and gouache 26.3 x 31.2 cm Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen, Rotterdam

1495 Female Nude from Behind brush on paper 32 x 21 cm Musée du Louvre, Paris

1495 Landscape near Segonzano in the Cembra Valley watercolour 21 x 31.2 cm Ashmolean Museum, Oxford

1495 Lobster pen on paper 24.6 x 42.8 cm Staatliche Museen, Berlin

1495 St Jerome in the Wilderness oil on panel 23 x 17 cm National Gallery, London

1495 Study of the Christ Child en and black ink, heightened with white pen 17.2 x 21.5 cm Musée du Louvre, Paris

1495 The Castle at Trento watercolour on paper 19.8 x 25.7 cm British Museum, London

1495 The Holy Family with a Dragonfly engraving Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

1495 The Ill-Assorted Couple engraving 14.9 x 13.8 cm Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

1495 View of Arco watercolour and gouache on paper 22.1 x 22.1 cm Musée du Louvre, Paris

1495 View of Innsbruck watercolour on paper 12.7 x 18.7 cm Graphische Sammlung Albertina, Vienna

1495-46 The Small Fortune engraving 12 x 6.6 cm British Musem, London

1495-47 Pine watercolour and gouache on paper 29.5 x 19.6 cm British Museum, London

1495c Five Lansquenets and an Oriental on Horseback engraving on white laid paper 13.2 x 14.5 cm Art Institute of Chicago, IL

1495c Iris watercolour and body colour on paper 77 x 31 cm Kunsthalle, Bremen

1495c The Great Courier engraving 10 x 11.3 cm Kupferstichkabinett, Dresden

1495c Virgin and Child before an Archway oil on panel 48 x 36 cm Fondazione Magnani Rocca, Mamiano di Traversetolo

1496 Hercules and Cacus woodcut 39.2 x 28.3 cm Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

1496 Martyrdom of the Ten Thousand woodcut 39.1 x 28.4 cm (image) Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

1496 Portrait of Elector Frederick the Wise of Saxony tempera on canvas 76 x 57 cm Staatliche Museen, Berlin

1496 The Cook and His Wife engraving Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

1496 The Dresden Altarpiece oil on canvas 114 x 45 cm (outer panels) 117 x 96.5 cm (centre panel) Gemäldegalerie, Dresden

1496 The Dresden Altarpiece centre panel, oil on canvas 117 x 96.5 cm

1496 The Dresden Altarpiece outer panel, oil on canvas 114 x 45 cm 

1496 The Dresden Altarpiece outer panel, oil on canvas 114 x 45 cm 

1496 The Little Courier engraving Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

1496 The Women's Bath pen and ink 23.1 x 22.6 cm Kunsthalle, Bremen

1496-97 Nuremberg and Venetian Women pen and ink on paper 24.1 x 16 cm Städelsches Kunstinstitut, Frankfurt

1496-97 View of Nuremberg watercolour and gouache 16.3 x 34.4 cm Kunsthalle, Bremen

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