Sunday, 29 April 2012

Burgoyne Diller

Burgoyne Diller was born in the Bronx, New York in 1906 but grew up in Buffalo, New York and later moved to Battle Creek, Michigan. In 1925 Diller attended Michigan State College but left after only two years. Due to the economic period of decline, jobs were scarce and money was tight. Diller struggled to find sufficient work in Michigan so in 1928 he moved back to New York, where he was awarded a scholarship to enroll in the Art Students League.

At the Art Students League, Diller discovered inspiration in the Russian Constructivist work of Kazimir Malevich and other artists including De Stijl, Piet Mondrian, and Theo van Doesburg. Diller also was greatly influenced by teachers Hans Hofmann and Jan Matulka, both of whom encouraged Diller’s exploration of pure colour and form. As a student Diller demonstrated leadership qualities, often coordinating exhibitions at the Art Students League. In 1933 he organized a show of avant-guard student work, exhibiting for the first time a group of emerging post-war American Cubists.

In the Early 1930’s Diller began making Geometric art. It was during this time that his artistic style transformed from cubism to non-objective neo-plasticism. And in 1933 he mounted a solo exhibition at the Contemporary Arts Museum in New York City. The introduction in the catalogue was written by Hans Hofmann.

On graduating from the Art Students League in 1934 he began working for the Public Works of Art Project (PWAP) and then the Temporary Emergency Relief Administration (TERA), as a muralist and easel painter. Both of these committees were set up in the New York City area - their aim was to provide much needed employment to artists. In addition, Diller founded the artist group called “Group A” in 1934.

A year later, Diller was appointed director of the New York City PWPA Mural Division. During a time of national economic turmoil when jobs were few and far between, Diller found work for hundreds of artists. Many of the artists employed by Diller later became some of the most important early 20-century names such as Arshile Gorky (1904-1948) and Stuart Davis (1894-1964). As director he supervised the execution of over 200 public murals.

As a fervent advocate for Abstract Art, Diller became a founding member of the American Abstract Artists group on March 12, 1936. The American Abstract Artist group held their first exhibition at the Squibb Galleries, less than a month after Diller was initiated. In 1937, Burgoyne Diller became sole administrator of the PWPA's mural division, putting him in charge of mural programs for public schools, colleges, libraries, municipal buildings, and hospitals. Despite increased responsibility at work, Diller continued to work diligently at his own art, even broadening his body of work. It was during this time that Diller began to make relief sculptures, combining flat painted grounds and projecting elements in low relief.

Diller worked for the PWPA until the outbreak of World War II, when he served time in the Navy. In 1946, after his time in the Navy, he became a professor at Brooklyn College. The roles of student and teacher were now reversed for Diller, and he received the chance to teach and inspire an entire generation of abstract artists.

Decades of heavy drinking had taken their toll on Diller, and he died in 1965 in New York. Diller will always be remembered as a one of the most significant artists devoted to geometric abstraction, and a true pioneer of American modernism.

1930 Untitled 
ink on paper 34.6 x 21.6 cm

1931 Untitled 
crayon on paper 49.5 x 30.5 cm

1932 Untitled ( Three Men with Hats in City Street ) 
lino cut 25.9 x 30.7 cm 
© VAGA, New York, NY

1933 Early Geometric 
oil on canvas 68.6 x 104.1 cm

1933 Untitled

1934 Construction 
painted wood and fibreboard 60.8 x 60.8 cm

1934 Construction 
painted wood and fibreboard 61.1 x 61.2 cm

c1934 Early Geometric 
oil on canvas 50.8 x 61 cm

1936 Early Geometric #492 
oil on canvas 45.7 x 57.2 cm

1937 Second Theme

1938 511-1938-Group 3 
pencil and crayon on tracing paper 31.8 x 30.5 cm

1938 Construction 
mixed media

1938-39 Third Theme 
collage and watercolour on board 38.1 x 38.1 cm

1940 Construction 
painted wood 68.3 x 22.6 x 22.6 cm

1946-48 Third Theme 
oil on canvas 106.7 x 106.7 cm

1947 903-47 
crayon and pencil on paper 14 x 14.2 cm

1947 Untitled 
graphite and crayon on paper 31.8 x 31.1 cm

1948 Untitled 
graphite and crayon on paper 22.2 x 17.8 cm

1949 Second Theme 
oil on canvas 66 x 66 cm 
© Estate of Burgoyne Diller / Licensed by VAGA, New York, NY

c1955-60 No. 2, First Theme 
oil on canvas 52.3 x 122.2 cm

1958-60 No. 29, First Theme 
oil on canvas 86.4 x 86.5 cm

1961 Untitled 
graphite and crayon on paper 34.9 x 42.5 cm

1962 First Theme #4 
oil on canvas 106.7 x 106.7 cm

1962 Interplay ( No. 3, Second Theme ) 
oil on canvas 107.1 x 106.9 cm

1962 No. 20, First Theme 
oil on canvas 106.7 x 106.9 cm

1962 Untitled 
graphite, crayon and pastel on paper 35.6 x 27.9 cm

1963 Collage Studies for Project for Granite 
collage and graphite on paper 35.6 x 50.8 cm

1963 First Theme 
oil on canvas 228.6 x 96.5 cm

1963 No. 37, Second Theme 
oil on canvas 106.9 x 107 cm

1963-64 First Theme 
oil on canvas 182.9 x 182.9 cm

1964 Untitled 
collage on masonite 27.9 x 35.6 cm

1964 Untitled 
graphite and crayon on paper 35.6 x 27.9 cm

before 1965 Red and Blue Bars 
pencil and coloured pencil on paper 34.9 x 35.1 cm

Study for Counter-Composition

Third Theme

Untitled ( Second Theme ) 
crayon on black paper 15.7 x 17.3 cm

Friday, 27 April 2012

Johannes Vermeer - part 2

This is part 2 of a 2-part post on the works of Dutch artist Johannes Vermeer. For biographical notes on Vermeer and earlier works, see part 1.

Johannes Vermeer (1632 – 1675) was famous for his domestic interior scenes of middle class life, probably the second most famous Dutch painter of the 17th century after Rembranndt (a period which is better known as the Dutch Golden Age for its astonishing cultural and artistic achievements). His paintings are admired for their transparent colours, well thought out composition and brilliant use of light.

1665 Woman Holding a Balance  
oil on canvas 42 x 35.5 cm

c1665-66 A Lady Writing 
oil on canvas 45 x 39.9 cm

c1665-67 Girl with the Red Hat 
oil on canvas 22.8 x 18 cm

c1665-67 Study of a Young Woman 
44.5 x 40 cm

c1665 The Girl with a Pearl Earring 
46.5 x 40 cm

c1666-67 Mistress and Maid ( Lady with Her Maidservant Holding a Letter ) 
90.2 x 78.4 cm

c1666-68 The Art of Painting 
oil on canvas 120 x 100 cm

c1666 Girl with a Flute 
oil on canvas 20.2 x 18 cm

1668 The Astronomer 
oil on canvas 51.5 x 45.5 cm

c1668-69 The Geographer 
oil on canvas 52 x 45.5 cm

c1669-71 The Lacemaker
oil on canvas
24.5 x 21 cm

c1666 The Love Letter 
oil on canvas 44 cm x 38.5 cm

c1670-72 A Lady Standing at a Virginal 
oil on canvas 51.7 x 45.2 cm

c1670-72 A Young Woman Seated at a Virginal ( A Lady Seated at a Virginal ) 
oil on canvas 51.5 x 45.5 cm

c1670-72 A Young Woman Seated at the Virginal 
oil on canvas 25.2 x 20 cm

c1670-72 Young Woman Playing a Guitar 
oil on canvas 53 x 46.3 cm

c1670 Lady Writing a Letter with Her Maid 
oil on canvas 72.2 x 59.7 cm

c1671-74 Allegory of Faith 
oil on canvas 114.3 x 88.9 cm